Factors Affecting Landforms

  1. Discuss the relative role of structure in carving out different topographic features on the surface of the Earth.
  2. The primary factor in landform formation is Climate, rather than Structure. Bring out the relative role of different factors.

Earth movement and Endogenetic force

  1. Geological structure has a dominant control on landforms and is reflected on them.” Discuss. (2016)
  2. Describe the landforms, which are products of endogenetic forces. (2004)
  3. Classification of Earth Movements (92)
  4. Discuss the nature and characteristics of various types of earth movement.
  5. Discuss the relationship between various types of endogenetic movements and plate tectonics.
  6. Classification of forces affecting the land surface.

Exogenetic forces

  1. Discuss the processes of mechanical and chemical weathering and show their relationship with soil formation. (96)
  2. Explain weathering and mass wasting, and describe their geomorphic significance. (2014)
  3. “Weathering is a complex phenomenon involving a number of processes and is influenced by various factors” Elaborate. (2010)
  4. Attempt a classification of geomorphic process from zonal point of view (2015)

Fundamental of Geomagnetism

  1. Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism. (2011)
  2. Discuss the causes of magnetism and magnetic reversal and examine its impact.
  3. Fundamental of Geomagnetism
  4. Causes of geomagnetism and impact of polar reversal.

Physical conditions of the earth’s interior

  1. Bring out the relevance of seismic study in determining the structure of the interior of the earth (2010).
  2. Discuss how seismic investigations can help in deciphering he interior of the Earth.
  3. Divide the Earth into various layers stating the basis of its division and enumerate its characteristics.
  4. Mechanical and Chemical Division of the Earth.
  5. Discuss the relative significance of new methods of exploration of earth’s Interior.


  1. Geosyncline (2002)
  2. Role of Geosynclines in Mountain Building.

Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust

  1. Impact of Pleistocene Ice Age on the crust of the Earth. (2013)
  2. Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust
  3. Write an essay on the evolution of continents and oceans using various theories and models. 2020 27.


  1. Present a critical analysis of the theory of Isostasy (2001)
  2. Discuss how the Various theories of Isostasy help in explaining in different relief features.
  3. Compare and Contrast Pratt and Airy

Continental Drift

  1. State, in detail, and appraise fully the arguments in favour of and against the theory of Continental Drift (1980)
  2. Discuss the limitations of the theory of Continental Drift and show how the theory of Plate tectonics is and improvement over it. (95)
  3. Bring out the distinctions between the ‘continental drift theory’ and the plate tectonics’ theory  (99)
  4. Critically evaluate the continental drift hypothesis of A. Wegener. (2006)
  5. Palaeozoic glacial evidence for Continental Drift.(2012)
  6. State the concept of plate tectonics. How does it help in explaining the formation of the Himalayas and Appalachian Mountains? (2014)
  7. Describe how the developments after the criticism of Continental Drift Theory helped the evolution of Plate Tectonics.

Plate tectonics

  1. Plate tectonics (90)
  2. Seafloor spreading theory (2008)
  3. ”Offshore Acoustic Study helped the development of the concept of sea floor spreading.”Explain. (2013)
  4. Discuss the Concept of Plate Tectonics. How Plate Tectonics explains the various surface features.
  5. What is Plate Tectonics? Give a brief account of the process operating at different plate margins.
  6. Discuss the concept of Plate Tectonics. Show how does Plate Tectonics explains the mechanism of Earthquake, Volcanism, Mt. Building and Tsunami.
  7. The formation of different types of mountains is explained by Plate Tectonics. Give examples.
  8. Plate tectonics explains all the surface features of continents and oceans basin. Explain
  9. Plate Tectonics and Climatic Change
  10. Plate Tectonics and mineral formation
  11. Plate Tectonics has solved more problems than it has raised.
  12. Evolution of India as a geological unit as explained by plate tectonics.
  13. Discuss the concept of Plate Tectonics. In brief and show how does Plate Tectonics explains the mechanism of Earthquake, Volcanism, Mt. Building and Tsunami.
  14. Discuss, the Supercontinent Cycle, its causes and the future of the world.

Recent View on Mountain building

  1. Discuss the mountain building process in the world with a special reference to the origin of the Himalayas. (82)
  2. Discuss the mountain-building processes with suitable examples. (84)
  3. Discuss the process of mountain building.
  4. Role of geoynclines in orogeny
  5. Discuss the various types of mountains. How are they formed
  6. Discuss the recent concept of the origin of Himalayas.
  7. The formation of different types of mountains is explained by Plate Tectonics. Give examples.


  1. Discuss, with examples, the influence of volcanism and diastrophism on the evolution of landscape. (93)
  2. Discuss the concept of volcanicity and show how the theory of Plate Tectonics explains the mechanism of volcanism and volcanic eruptions. (98)
  3. Discuss the process volcanism in relation to Plate Tectonics?
  4. Discuss the various topographic features produced due to volcanic activity.
  5. Examine the relationship between volcanism and climatic and weather phenomena.
  6. Volcanic topography and Agriculture
  7. Write a note on Pseudo volcanic features 2017


  1. Discuss the origin of earthquakes and volcanism in relation to Plate Tectonics.
  2. Discuss the causes and effects of earthquakes.
  3. Earthquakes.


  1. Elaborate the causes of Tsunamis and explain the remedies to curb its effects.
  2. Discuss the means and management of tsunamis.
  3. Discuss the causes of Tsunamis and effect on India as well as its vulnerability

Concepts of geomorphic cycles and landscape development

  1. ‘Landscape is the function of structure, process and stage’. Discuss. (83)
  2. Discuss the views of W. M. Davis and Walter Penck on the cycle of erosion. (86)
  3. Analyse the differences in the models of slope evolution proposed by Davis and Penck. (90)
  4. Discuss the concept of cycle of erosion and bring out clearly the difference between the views of Davis and Penck.(94)
  5. Provide a critique of the ‘geographical cycle’ model propounded by Davis. (2002)
  6. Critically examine the concept of geomorphic cycle and discuss the views of W.M. Davis and W. Penck. (2008)
  7. Characteristics of the standard epigene cycle of erosion. (2012)
  8. Differences between Normal cycle and Arid cycle of Davis. (2013)
  9. Peneplain – 1982
  10. Highlight the geomorphic features essentially found in topographies under the second cycle of Erosion. (2009).
  11. Essential conditions for the development of karst topography.(2010)
  12. Present -day landforms bear more complexity than simplicity.” Elucidate. (2015)
  13. Discuss the different theories of geomorphic cycles.
  14. Geomorphic Cycles
  15. Name the climatically controlled agents of erosion. Explain how they differ in terms of properties of matter. Compare the landforms produced by each of them.


  1. What are the barrier component of Geohydrology, discuss?
  2. Applications of Geohydrology
  3. Describe Groundwater in relation to Great Artesian basin.
  4. Why is mapping important for analysing geo-hydrological investigations? Explain with relevant examples. 2020

Economic geology and environment

  1. Geology has provided a lot of benefit to mankind from economic perspective but at the cost of high environmental price. Discuss?
  2. Discuss the applicability of geomorphology in looking for mineral deposits.
  3. Discuss the origin, exploration, extraction, and processing of mineral resources.

Denudation chronology

  1. Denudation chronology

Applied Geomorphology

  1. Discuss the application of geomorphology in various fields giving examples.
  2. Geomorphology finds itself applied in almost everyday to day activity and phenomena. Explain.
  3. Applied Geomorphology
  4. Application of geomorphology in engineering projects

Channel morphology

  1. Discuss the different elements of channel morphology
  2. Explain with example, as to how channel dynamic has been responsible for the development of alluvial fans and cones. (2015)
  3. Discuss the relationship of different channel morphologies with the geological structure and discuss the effect of channels on the landuses and water uses.
  4. Climate, rock gradient and rock structure influence the avulsion of channels. (2017)

Erosion surfaces

  1. State the concept of erosion surfaces and highlight the factors responsible for their development. (2014)
  2. Evolution of Different types of erosion surfaces.
  3. Define and describe Different types of Erosion Surfaces.
  4. Discuss the problems of erosional surfaces and explain the different methods to identify them with suitable diagrams. 2020

Slope Development

  1. Explain how Bosche and Haldenhang lead to the Theory of Slope Replacement. (2014)
  2. Discuss views on slope development provided by L.C. King. (2009)
  3. Examine the factors affecting the process of slop development in different climatic condition.
  4. Discuss the comparative views of different geomorphologists regarding slope development. How is it relative to geomorphic cycle? And discuss the landuses and water uses of channels.
  5. “In explaining the concept of ‘Pediplanation’ King combined the ideas of Davis, Penck and Wood with his own.” Elaborate. (2016)
  6. The knowledge of slope analysis has limited field application in slope management.

Exogenic Processes and Landforms

  1. Define the term ‘meander’ and describe the basic characteristics of entrenched meander and ingrown meander. (2014)

Landscape development

  1. What are U shaped valley and its associated features.
  2. Discuss different types of Beaches and its formation.
  3. What are the Changes associated with approaching waves towards a shore.
  4. Identify different types of dune, illustrate them to show their formation.
  5. Describe the “Basket of eggs topography”. (2016)


  1. Polycyclic Topography – 1983
  2. Rejuvenated Topography-1989
  3. Polycyclic Topography – 1991
  4. Systems approach to landform analysis. – 2012
  5. Programmes initiated by the International Council of Science on Earth System studies. – 2012
  6. Discuss the concept of periglacial cycle as propounded by Peltier. 2017

New Age Questions compatible with the changing pattern for 2020

Mixed Interrelated and interdisciplinary nature Questions

  1. Geology has provided a lot of benefit to mankind from economic perspective but at the cost of high environmental price. Discuss?
  2. Discuss, the Supercontinent Cycle, its causes and the future of the world.
  3. What are the causes of evolution of geomagnetism?
  4. Evaluate the impact of polar reversal.
  5. Discuss the relative significance of new methods of exploration of earth’s Interior.
  6. The study of the nature of terrain would play a major part in any strategic advantage India and China want to have. Elaborate.
  7. Discuss the impact of humans on:
  8. Fluvial processes
  9. Coastal processes
  10. Differentiate between mudflow and earth flow
  11. Explain landslide, rockslide & debris slide
  12. Discuss the role of geomorphology in road construction.
  13. Discuss the concept, ideal conditions, type and significance or river capture.
  14. Critically analyse the concept of denudation chronology.
  15. Explain the nature of Benioff Zone, What it is and how is it formed?
  16. What are aulacogens, and how do they form?
  17. What are Irina Jaya and Cyprus models of mountain building? Discuss its mechanism.
  18. Explain the origin of Chad lake and its extinction which caused the initiation of desertification process in Africa. What impact it had had on the Climate of Africa and Amazon basin.
  19. The magnetic field changes have the potential to completely throw laws of atmosphere, physics and biotic life out of gear. Explain
  20. Explain the mantle plume mechanism for epeirogenic movement.
  21. Inhomogeneous Accretion Model can best explain the evolution of crust. Discuss.
  22. Wegener should be more known for his insight rather than logic. Comment
  23. How was it that Palaeomagnetism established continental drift?
  24. State the concept of erosion surfaces and highlight the factors responsible for their development.
  25. How do limestone caves form. Discuss the various theories of limestone cave formation.
  26. The notion of uniformity is far more complex than is generally known. Elaborate.
  27. The role of structure is far more significant than is made out to be because of variations in climate.
  28. What are geomorphic process and how is it that they determine variations in their operation with the resulting effects?
  29. What are the differences between Cratons, Shields and Platforms. Explain it taking example from India.
  30. The opening and closing of the ocean basins and continents has taken place many time. Explain how is it accomplished?
  31. Slope development is different and its form is different in different Climatic Zones.
  32. What are the different type of bed rock channels and the factors controlling it.
  33. The different type of channel patterns are the product of different hydraulic dynamics as well as hydraulic geometry.