Types and patterns of rural settlements

  1. Citing suitable examples from India, explain the role of site and other physical factors in determining the types and patterns of rural settlements. (92)
  2. Rural Settlement Patterns (85)
  3. Types and patterns of rural settlements
  4. Discuss the role of site in determining the types and patterns of rural settlements. (2016)
  5. Describe the changing regional morphology of rural settlements in India.

Environmental issues in rural Settlement

  1. Rural settlements are the product of their environment and ecology. Explain with suitable examples.

Hierarchy of urban settlements

  1. Functional and hierarchical patterns of Indian cities. (86)
  2. Function, Classification and hierarchy of urban settlements. (90)
  3. Hierarchical pattern of Indian towns (99)
  4. Describe the concept of hierarchy of settlements. Discuss the practically and theoretical means of identifying and analyzing the hierarchy
  5. What are the different interpretations of hierarchy of settlements discuss. Analyse your view points on them.
  6. Hierarchy of urban settlement.

Urban morphology

  1. Bring out the sequential improvements in models of city structure by E.W. Burgess, Homer Hoyt, and Harrris and Ullman. (2010)
  2. “Urban Geography is nothing but city “in” area and city “as” area.” Elaborate. (2013)
  3. The variations in urban morphology are the result of different types of cultures and lifestyles. Critically analyse.
  4. Discuss the different models of urban morphology with suitable examples of Indian cities.
  5. Discuss the major characteristics of ‘CBD’. (2016)

Concept of primate city

  1. Primate city (99) (2005) 2008)
  1. “Colonial forces resulted in the primate pattern of urban process in most Southern Asian countries.” Discuss. (2012)
  2. Primacy and regional primacy as indication of economic structure and growth.

Rank-size rule

  1. In urban geography, what are the concepts of primate city and Rank Size Rule? Discuss in detail. (2006)
  2. Rank-Size rule (2000)
  3. Rank-size rule

Functional classification of towns

  1. Classification of cities (89)
  2. Discuss Nelson’s method of functional classification of towns. (2015)
  3. Cities as catalyst of Social and Economic Change.
  4. Functional classification of towns

Sphere of urban influence

  1. Define the urban sphere of influence and discuss different methods of determining the spheres of influence of cities. (86)
  2. Define umland and discuss, with specific examples, the criteria for its delimitation. (93)
  3. Examine the concept of sphere of urban influence and discuss and qualitative and quantitative methods used in its delimitation. (2003)
  4. Explain the qualitative and quantitative methods of delineation of the sphere of urban influence. (2014)
  5. Urban sphere of influence (84)
  6. Gravity model (99)
  7. Relevance of distance decay principle in Indian cities. (2012)
  8. It is difficult to determine the sphere of influence of a city, while it is practical to determine the sphere of influence of a particular function. Elaborate your answer.
  9. Discuss the application of gravity model in Geographical studies. (2016)

Conurbations and Megalopolis

  1. Elaborate the concept of Megalopolis and discuss the characteristics and problems related to two regions selecting the each from North America and Europe.
  2. Discuss the concept, characteristics and development of conurbations, with examples.
  3. Discuss the concept of Satellite Towns. Explain the role of satellite towns in relation to its characteristics.
  4. Satellite town
  5. Explain the concepts of “megalopolis” and “exopolis” with regard to the growth of cities indicating whether the two can and do overlap.
  6. 42.

Problems and remedies of urbanisation

  1. Slums and squatter settlements. (94)
  2. “Urban Solid Waste Management poses the greatest challenge in Metropolitan planning.” Elaborate. (2013)
  3. Discuss the factors responsible for counter-urbanisation. (2014)
  4. Critically analyse the various urban problem of the developed and developing countries.
  5. How do slums develop? Give concrete suggestions for their improvement. (2016) (India)

Sustainable development of cities

  1. “Rural sustainability is necessary for urban sustainability.” Discuss the statement in the backdrop of

integrated development approach. (2014)

  1. Discuss in brief the concept of sustainable development as applied to cities and bring out the salient features of sustainable urban development.
  2. Sustainable development of cities.
  3. Cities as catalyst of Social and Economic Change
  4. Discuss the concept of urban resilience in the context of planning for  sustainable development with reference to towns and cities of India. 2020


  1. Elaborate the concept of Megalopolis and discuss the characteristic and problems related to two such regions selecting one each from North America and Europe. (2009)
  2. Secondary cities in the context of urbanisation in developing world. (2011)
  3. Regional shifts in the world urbanization after 1950 and the varied characteristics of urban process. (2012)
  4. Misra’s theoretical stages of Rural- Urban Process. (2013)

What is Geriatrics? What are the problems associated with Geriatric population? (2013)


Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements

  1. Types of rural settlements and the factors affecting it. (92)
  2. Explain, with the help of suitable examples and illustrations, the distribution of various patterns of rural settlements in India. (95)
  3. Explain, with suitable examples and sketch-maps, the distribution of various patterns of rural settlements in India. (99)
  4. Rural settlement patterns in the Ganga Valley. (85)
  5. Explain the basis and characteristics of Dispersed Settlements in the N. E. Region of India. (91)
  6. Discuss the geographical control of rural settlement pattern in India. (98)
  7. Discuss briefly the principal types of rural settlements in India. (2005)
  8. State the geographical factors which influence rural house types in India.(2009)
  9. Morphological characteristics of villages situated in hilly regions. (2012)
  10. Give an account of geographical conditions responsible for the development of different types of rural settlement in India. (2012)
  11. Describe the main types of rural settlement patterns with examples.
  12. State the geographical factors which influence rural house types in India.
  13. Present a comparative analysis of geographical factors responsible for distribution of human settlements in Rajasthan desert and North-Eastern regions of India. (In about 250 words) (2016)
  14. Explain the changing river courses and their impacts on the riparian population in India with suitable examples.
  15. Give a reasoned geographical account of changing rural folk houses in India. 15 2020

Census Definition of Urban Areas

  1. Concept of ‘Urban’
  2. Cities as catalyst of Social and Economic Change

Urban development

  1. Discuss the process, pattern and impact of urbanisation in India. (88)
  2. Discuss the recent trends in urbanisation in India and briefly describe the main characteristics and problems of the major Indian cities. (89)
  3. Bring out the salient characteristics of Indian unbanization with suitable examples. (94)
  4. ‘Unplanned urban development has created numerous problems’ Comment (2008)
  5. Analyse the extent of urban population growth in India in the last four decades. (91)
  6. Outline the role of class II and III towns in the Urban process of India and indicate their contribution towards balanced urban development.(2010)
  7. Describe in brief the various processes of urbanisation
  8. Describe the causes and effects of urbanization in India and explain its impact on rural landscape and urban ecology. (In about 250 words) (2016)
  9. Explain the contemporary agricultural scenario in the context of rapid urbanizations in India.

Morphology of Indian cities

  1. Indian Cities are lacking in layout and function. How far is this true and what historical and cultural factors are responsible for these features? (83)
  2. Describe the salient characteristics of the morphology of Indian cities. (2000)
  3. Explain the morphology of Indian cities in the background of existing morphological models. (2006)
  4. Functional and Morphological Typology of Indian Cities (87)
  5. Internal structure of an Indian city. (94)
  6. The Indian city structure is the product of its history Elaborate.
  7. Planned cities of India
  8. Examine the driving forces of changing urban morphology of millionplus cities of India with suitable examples.

Functional classification of Indian cities

  1. “Mono-functional towns are economically vulnerable.” Discuss. (In about I5O words) (2015)
  2. Functional classification of Indian cities.

Conurbations and metropolitan regions

  1. Discuss the concept of city region and referring to Indian cities, examine critically functional indicators used for delimiting the city region (98)
  2. Differentiate between conurbations and metropolitan region. Give a reasoned account of emerging conurbations in India. (2011)
  3. How has an inappropriate urban land use policy accounted for undesirable development in and around metropolitan cities? (2014)
  4. Conurbations and metropolitan regions
  5. Provide a reasoned account on emerging conurbations in India and explain with suitable examples the problems associated with it.

Urban sprawl

  1. “There is no sharp divide where an urban settlement stops and rural areas begins.”. Analyze the state the statement with reference to the sprawl of India cities. (2009)
  2. Analyse the causes of evolution of urban sprawl and its impact on the city, its structure, form and culture
  3. Changing, nature and impact of Sprawl in India.
  4. “There is no sharp divide where an urban settlement stops and rural are in begins.” Analyse the sprawl of Indian cities.
  5. Urban sprawl around planned cities evolve leading to emergence of squatter settlements. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such outgrowth. 2020
  6. Analyse the changing nature of workforce composition vis-à-vis rural-urban divide in India. 2020 84.

Slums and associated problems

  1. “Slums are urban menace.” Elucidate with Indian cities as examples. (2007)
  2. Growth of urban slums and problems associated with them. (90)
  3. Distinguishing features of an urban slum and its position in metropolitan area. (93)
  4. Factors for the growth of slums in the metropolitan cities of India. (96)
  5. Discuss the environmental impact of the growth of slums in Indian cities. (2000)
  6. How do slums develop? Give concrete suggestions for their improvement. (2004)
  7. Define slums and explain their problems. (2013)
  8. The result of unplanned urban growth is seen in slums of India, discuss.
  9. How do the ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors operate for the emergence of slums in the metropolises of India?
  10. How do slums develop? Give concrete suggestions for their improvement. (2016)

Town planning

  1. Discuss the elements and approaches of town planning in India. (2006)
  2. “Though 70% of Indian population is rural, urban planning is crucial to the development of India.” Discuss. (2012)
  3. City-regions as territorial unit for regional planning and development. (2013)
  4. What have been the main objectives of the National Capital Region Plan. Discuss its features and the problems in the implementation of the Plan.
  5. Role of Satellite towns in urban Planning.
  6. Small towns in India have problems and prospects of their own. Elaborate. (2017)
  7. Peri-urbanization has created enormous environmental problems. Discuss their causes and consequences with reference to the National Capital Region (N.C.R) of India.
  8. Identify challenges faced by generative and parasitic towns in India and their possible remedies.2020
  9. 103.

Problems of urbanisation and remedies

  1. Describe how urbanization creates air and water pollution in India. (2013)
  2. Account for the multiple problems of urban agglomerations. (2014)
  3. The problems of Indian cities are the outcome of its layout, demographic and functional characteristics.
  4. The solution to Indian urban problems lies in a comprehensive regional plan and development of the rural areas. Discuss
  5. Critical examine the environmental problems of Indian cities.
  6. Problems of pollution in Indian Cities.
  7. In the light of the existing urban problems, identify the various approaches for town planning in India which can lead to sustainable cities.
  8. Critically examine sustainable development in Indian Planning and the problems faced in its attainment.
  9. Correlate the price of land, vertical growth of cities and the growth of slums in large cities of India.
  10. Give a reasoned account of high level of pollution in North Indian cities as compared to South Indian cities

Other Mixed Questions

  1. Write a note on the emergence of National Settlement System in colonial India and discuss the factors contributing to urbanization in post-independence period. (2013)
  2. Discuss the objectives of ‘Vision 2020’ in creation of viable village complex in India for ‘Inclusive Rural Development’ programme. (2013)
  3. Analyse the changing nature of workforce composition vis-à-vis rural-urban  divide  in  India.  2020