India Vegetation by K. Siddharta Sir

Vegetation as a natural product, not a part of biodiversity or forest resources

The character of vegetation depends upon its temperature rainfall, soil and interference by man. The climate of India is tropical and even in the northerly region of the Punjab plain winters are mild. Consequently, vegetation is tropical monsoonal in character throughout India below 900 metres. Variations in species and luxurience of vegetation from place to place thus depends to a large extent on the distribution of rainfall hence we have.

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Tropical Evergreen, Tropical Deciduous, Dry Savanna, Semi desert scrub, Tropical desert, Subtropical, Mangrove, Himalayan vegetation.

Tropical wet Evergreen and Semi Evergreen are found in regions having rainfall above 100″, below 900 metres relief.

Where the rainfall diseases from 100″-80″ the evergreen forests degenerate into semi evergreen forests. The deciduous trees increase in number. Bamboos, cane ferns, and orchids are common.

The grasses which are extensively burnt in dry summer spring up during rainy season. In areas where the rainfall is less than 40″ Tropical dry deciduous are common.

The vegetation consists of gregarious species. The typical landscape  consists of tall teak trees, with other trees, bamboos and shrubs growing fairly close together so as to form thickets : there are also open grass patches. Teak, sal and sandalwood are important trees.

Dry savanna is characterised by open space short trees of acacia and euphorbias with an undergrowth of thorny shrubs and grasses. Along the water courses and other wet lowlands ‘kans’ grow in profusion.

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The desert vegetation is found where the rainfall is normally below 12″ and is found in the western part of Rajasthan

During to extreme arid condition plants generally grow into bushes which are usually scattered, plants are short, have water storing cells, hair on the stalk and other special natural devices to protect them from aridity.

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