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- A quasi-periodic inter-annual climate pattern in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean is known as the Atlantic Equatorial Mode, Atlantic Nino, or Atlantic Zonal Mode.
- Alternating bouts of warming and cooling of sea surface temperatures, along with alterations in air circulation, are caused by this major form of yearly variability.
- The El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which rules the tropical Pacific basin, is quite similar to the Atlantic Nio, hence the name.
- Because of this, the Atlantic Nio is frequently referred to as El Nino’s smaller brother.
- A sea surface temperature anomaly between 0° and 30°W, centered on the equator, is what the Atlantic Nio is known for.
- A change in the climatological trade winds is closely related to this sea surface temperature anomaly. In the equatorial Atlantic basin, a warm anomaly is linked to calm trade winds whereas a cool anomaly is linked to increased easterly wind stress in the same area.
- These variations in the trade winds can be explained by the Atlantic Walker circulation’s strengthening and waning.
- It is well known that rainfall variability throughout the neighbouring continents, particularly in West African nations, is closely related to the equatorial warming and cooling cycles linked to the Atlantic Nino.
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