Demographic Transition in Women’s Live - GS Paper 2 - Social Issues

Demographic Transition in Women’s Live – GS Paper 2 – Social Issues

Demographic Transition in Women’s Live

Demographic Transition in Women According to the India Human Development Survey (IHDS), only 11% of women expected their daughters to provide for them in their old age, while 85% of those polled expected their sons to do so. Thus, parents who desire to have at least one male in their family of one or two children turned to sex-selective abortion and, in some cases, neglected their ill daughters who a result, between 1950 and 2019, the ratio of females to boys aged under five fell from 96 to 91.

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While early marriage and motherhood continue to be the dominant influences shaping women’s life, women’s educational achievement has increased, with over 70% of girls enrolling in secondary education.


Perhaps early parenthood explains why lower fertility does not result in higher female labour force participation. If women want to get skilled positions, they must develop trusting relationships with the labour market and accumulate work experience. They miss the opportunity for jobs that require specialised skills at the time childcare demand peaks and are only qualified for unskilled work.


At later ages, women’s lives are also impacted by demographic changes. Because of longer life expectancies, the percentage of women 65 and older rose from 5% to 11% between 1950 and 2022, and is expected to reach 21% by 2050. 

Demographic Transition in Women’s Live - GS Paper 2 - Social Issues-2

The share of older males will rise as well, but ageing affects women differently. Women typically marry older men who have a higher likelihood of outliving them. According to the 2011 Census, only 18% of males over 65 are widowed, compared to roughly 55% of women. 

Demographic Transition in Women

Due to their lack of access to assets and property, widowed mothers become dependent on their children, particularly their sons, which completes the circle of son preference.

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