UPSC Mains | Geography Optional Paper-1 | Answer Discussion | Hazards and Disasters in India | K. Siddhartha Sir

Discuss the human response to and management of hazards and disasters in India.

Why the question was asked-

Planning of Sahel in news following a seminar in kampala university


Very Marks fetching


Needs Scholarly approach

Problems faced

Comprehension of the topic and material

Source Book

Disaster Management-K. Siddhartha

Web Source


The human response to hazards are not institutional, not Government and not a policy response. The response comprises of four stages, Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery.


Mitigation is the measures put in place to minimize the results from a disaster. Examples: building codes and zoning; vulnerability analyses; public education.


Preparedness comprises the planning as how to respond during a disaster. Examples: preparedness plans; emergency exercises/training; warning systems.


Response is the initial actions taken as the event takes place. It involves efforts to minimize damage created by a disaster for examples: evacuation, search and rescue, emergency relief etc.

Disaster Response

Disaster Response Activities

1.   Warning
2.   Evacuation and Migration
3.   Search and Rescue (SAR)
4.   Post-disaster assessment
5.   Response and relief
6.   Logistics and supply
7.   Communication and information management
8.   Survivor response and coping
9.   Security
10.        Emergency operations management
11.        Rehabilitation
12.        Reconstruction

Recovery involves bringing the community back to its normal course of life. This involves temporary housing facility, medical aid, grants etc.

Class of adjustments

Affect the cause

Modify the hazard

Modify loss potential

Adjustment to losses (Various Ways)

Spread the losses

Plan for losses

Bear the losses

To buy our online courses  Click Here

  1. How to start your answer and its introduction.
  2. How to give geographical angle and sense to your answers.
  3. Usage of relevant diagrams and maps.
  4. Well-structured answer covering different dimensions.

The link to join the course is : GEOGRAPHY OPTIONAL

For more details : Best Online Coaching for Civil Service_IAS_ UPSC_IFS_IPS, Free Study Material ENSEMBLE IAS ACADEMY

Call +91 98115 06926

Visit us:-

Online Store:

Email: [email protected]

#soil types #Landcover #Landuse #ensembleiasacademy #geographyoptional #k_siddharthasir #ias #civilservices #upsc_motivation #upsc_aspirants #upsc_exam