WHY TUNNELS CAN COLLAPSE
The geologic factors, which govern the extent to which tunneling conditions may be favourable or adverse, and, thus, determine the cost and stability of tunnels, may be summarized as follows:
- The nature of the country-rocks that is the materials of which the rocks are made of of which the occurring along the alignment of the tunnel.
- The geological structure of the region whether there were cracks, points of weakness faults or any joint.
- The position of the water-table within the country-rocks or the base rocks and the prevailing ground water condition along the length of the tunnel (Fig.
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Figure Tunnelling through igneous rocks. A – The rocks are massive and have been traversed by very few joints (J). Tunneling is safe. B – The rocks have been traversed by joints (J) and a shear-zone (sh). Tunneling is rather unsafe. Tunnel requires protective inner lining at the weak zones.
Tunnel through unconsolidated materials. B – Tunnel through crushed and fragmented rocks. In both cases tunneling is unsafe and the tunnels require lining for their safety and stability.
Figure Ground water conditions at tunnel sites. A – The tunnel runs along the direction of dip of the beds X, Y and Z. Ground water condition is, therefore, variable from point to point within the tunnel, depending upon the nature of the bed through which it is penetrating. B – The Tunnel is running through massive igneous rock traversed by a shear-zone (sh). Ground water condition may be adverse where the tunnel is passing through the shear-zone.
Tunnel Can Collapsed
The workers have been stuck inside the tunnel after a portion of it collapsed due to a landslide. A section of the 4.5km (3 miles) Silkyara tunnel in the Indian Himalayas caved in on 12 November.
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