Why in news?
- Recently, Coast Guard have enforced laws and started operation Olivia to protect Olive Ridley turtles in Odisha.
- In between November 2020 to May 2021, Coast Guard has devoted 225 ship days and 388aircraft hours. They have protected 3.49 lakh turtles.
- Enforcement of use of Turtle Excluder Devices (TED) by trawlers in waters surrounding nesting areas.
- Prohibition of using gill nets as turtle approaches to the shore to curtail turtle poaching.
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About Operation Olivia
- Operation Olivia was started by the Indian Coast Guard (ICG), first in early 1980s.
- This operation helps in protecting Olive Ridley turtles every year when they start nesting along Odisha coast for breeding in months of November to December.
- Under it, round-the-clock surveillance is conducted from November till May through Coast Guard assets like Fast patrol vessels, Interceptor craft, Air cushion vessels and Dornier aircraft.
About Olive Ridley
- Olive Ridley turtles are listed as vulnerable under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List.
- Sea turtles found in India have been included in Schedule I of Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
- They are also listed in Appendix I of Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of Wild Fauna and Flora.
- Their mass nesting is called as arribada.
- Gahirmatha, Astaranga coast, mouth of Devi river and Rushikulya are four arribadas sites off the Odisha Coast in India.
- Apart from that, Hope Island of Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary in Andhra Pradesh is also preferred for mass nesting.